Citation Guide

Parenthetical Citations in the Body of the Paper: ACS Style

When you quote or paraphrase from a source (book, article, or webpage) in your paper, you need to insert an in-text citation. 

In ACS papers, references can be cited in text in three different ways.  Ask your instructors which method they prefer!

Superscript numbers

  • At the end of the cited information, outside the period: Van Arnum states, "Continuous-flow technology offers potential advantages compared with traditional batch manufacturing of pharmaceuticals."¹
  • Within the cited information: Van Arnum¹ discusses the advantages of continuous-flow technology.
  • Once a source has been cited, the same number is used in all subsequent references.

OR

Italicized numbers in parentheses

  • At the end of the cited information, inside the period: Van Arnum states, "Continuous-flow technology offers potential advantages compared with traditional batch manufacturing of pharmaceuticals" (1).
  • Within the cited information: Van Arnum (1) discusses the advantages of continuous-flow technology .

OR

Author name and year of publication in parentheses

  • At the end of the cited information: "Continuous-flow technology offers potential advantages compared with traditional batch manufacturing of pharmaceuticals" (Van Arnum, 2013).
  • Within the cited information: Van Arnum (2013) discusses the advantages of continuous-flow technology.

 

Rules: ACS Style

Numerical Reference Methods (Superscript or Italicized)

  • Start with 1 and number consecutively throughout the paper.
  • If a reference is repeated later in the paper, do not give it a new number; use the original reference number

Author Name and Year Parenthetical Reference Method

  • For a source/reference with two authors, include both last names joined by the word and: (Mars and Grande, 2014)
  • If a source/reference has more than two authors, include only the first author listed followed by et al. (always use a period after al!): (Smith et al., 2013)

Citing More Than One Reference at a Time

  • Numerical Methods: List numbers in ascending order. Separate numbers with commas, or, if they are part of a consecutive series, use a dash to indicate a range.
    • in the studies.¹-²
    • in the literature (2, 4, 8-10)
  • Author-Year Method: List the references/sources alphabetically by author's name.  Use a semicolon to separate individual references. (Mars and Grande, 2014; Smith, 2013)

Quotation Length:

If you are using a quotation with 50 words or more, indent on both sides to make a narrow column. Do not use quotation marks.