Citation Guide

Authors' Names in APA Parenthetical Citations

Two authors

  • Name both authors in the signal phrase or in the parentheses.
  • Use and between the authors' names within the text, and use the & in the parentheses.
  • Add the year and page numbers (if there are any). 
  • (Mueller & Chapman, 2016, p. 52)

Three to five authors

  • The first time you cite the source in your paper, list all the authors in the signal phrase or in parentheses. 
  • Use the word and between the authors' names within the text, and use the & in the parentheses. 
  • Add the year and page numbers (if there are any).
  • (Emerson, Lake, & Palmer, 1993, p.76)
  • In subsequent citations, only use the first author's last name followed by "et al." Add the year and page numbers (if there are any).
  • (Emerson et al., 1993, p. 76)

Six or more authors

  • Use the first author's name followed by et al. Add the year and page numbers (if there are any).
  • (Reagan et al., 2008)

No author

  • Articles, Book Chapters, Webpages: Use the first word or two of the source in quotation marks.
  • Books: Use the first word or two of the source in italics.
  • For example, if you had an article with the title Practical oral care for people with intellectual disability, the parenthetical citation would look like ("Practical oral," 2014). 

Authors' Names on APA References Page

Two to seven authors: 

  • List by their last names and initials, separated by a comma. Put an & between the final two names.
  • Brooks, K., & Dunn, R.                        
  • Knowles-Carter, B., Carter, B.I., & Carter, S.

More than seven authors: 

  • List by last names and initials; commas separate author names. After the sixth author's name, use an ellipses ... in place of the author names. Then provide the final author name. There should be no more than seven names. 
  • Ehrlich, H., Shaala, L. A., Youssef, D. T., Żółtowska-Aksamitowska, S., Tsurkan, M., Galli, R., ... & Ivanenko, V. N. (2018). Discovery of chitin in skeletons of non-verongiid Red Sea demosponges. PloS One, 13(5), e0195803.

No author:

  • Start with the article title: Practical oral care for people with intellectual disability.
  • or Book title: Evicted: Poverty and profit in the American city.