Citation Guide

Authors' Names in In-Text Citations: AMA Format

AMA in-text citations consist of superscript Arabic numerals to number each of the sources in your text. The sources are numbered consecutively, and these in turnrefer to the sources listed on the References page at the end of your paper.

AMA does not require that you use author names in the text, but you may use author names as long as they are followed by the numbered citations. Use last names only. 

One or two authors, include both names.

  • Dow and Jones2 reported on the medical error scandal. 

Three or more authors, include the first author's last name and then et al.                                                                                                         

  • Smith et al3 recommended the newest biologic.

Authors' Names on the References Page: AMA Format

Last name first and then abbreviate first and middle names to just the first initial. There are no spaces, commas, or periods in between the first and middle initials. End with a period. 

Two to six authors: Place a comma between authors.

  • Mueller BN, Severson TS.

More than six authors: List the first three authors followed by et al.

  • LaPlante KA, Chapman JM, Kamps AB, et al.

Editors instead of authors: Place a comma after the editors' names and add eds. End with a period.

  • Parish CC, Huss AN, eds.

No authors: Start with the title of the item (book, article, web resource)