When you quote or paraphrase from a source (book, article, or webpage) in your paper, you need to insert a parenthetical citation.
This citation typically consists of the author’s name, year of publication, and page number in parentheses at the end of the sentence.
“This is a direct citation” (Chapman, 2019, p. 126).
When paraphrasing the idea in your own words, do not use quotation marks and do not include a page number (Jackson, 1999).
Another option is to use the author’s name in the sentence, followed directly by the year in parentheses, with the page numbers in parentheses at the end of the sentence.
According to Chapman (2019), "This is a direct citation" (p. 216).
Jackson (1999) explains that when paraphrasing the idea in your own words, do not use quotation marks and do not include a page number.
Parenthetical Citation Exceptions
The article goes on to say that “People don't do derby just for exercise but usually because it becomes a part of who they are” (Fagundes, 2012, p.1098).
Fagundes (2012) believes that roller derby gives participants "a chance to feel like a superstar" (p. 1098).
He asserts the following:
More importantly, though, the notion of competing under derby names was a perfect fit with the recent reimagination of the sport as a punk-rock spectacle that allowed, and encouraged, participants to develop outrageous public personas. The story of derby-name emergence probably has more to do with coincidence and path dependence than with conscious design. Derby pioneer Ivanna S. Pankin’s classic derby name pre-dated her founding of Arizona Roller Derby in 2003. Rather, it was a handle and email address she used as a musician in Phoenix’s punk rock scene. When she publicized her nascent league using the alias Ivanna S. Pankin, and the entire Austin scene was already using skate names, the leagues that popped up in their wake followed suit,33 and the practice of using colorful nicknames has been used by virtually all derby leagues and skaters since. (Fagundes, 2012, pp.1093-1094)
If you mention the author’s name in the paragraph, then just put the date in parentheses.
If you do not mention the author’s name, then include the author’s name in parentheses before the date.