Citation Guide

Authors' Names in APA (7th ed.) Parenthetical Citations

Author-Date Citation System - Official APA 7th edition Style and Grammar Guidelines

Two authors

  • Use and between the authors' last names within the text, and use the & in the parentheses.
  • Add the year and page numbers (if there are any). 
  • (Pence & Chapman, 2016, p. 52)

Three or more authors

  • Include the name of only the first author plus “et al.” in every citation. Add the year and page numbers (if there are any).
  • (Emerson et al., 1993, p. 76)

No author

  • Include the title and year of publication. If the title is long (more than 3 words), shorten it.
  • If the title of the work is not italicized in the reference (article, book chapter, page or section on a website), use the first word or two of the source in quotation marks.
  • If the title of the work is italicized in the reference (book, entire website), use the first word or two of the source in italics.
  • For example, if you had an article with the title Practical oral care for people with intellectual disability, the parenthetical citation would look like ("Practical oral," 2014). 

Government Agency as Author

Authors' Names on APA (7th ed.) References Page

Two to 20 authors: 

  • List by their last names and initials, separated by a comma. Put an & between the final two names.

  • Brooks, K., & Dunn, R.                        

  • Knowles-Carter, B., Carter, B.I., & Carter, S.

21 or more authors: 

  • List by last names and initials; commas separate author names. 

  • Include the first 19 authors’ names, insert an ellipsis ... (but no ampersand), and then add the final author’s name:.

  • Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C., Author, D. D., Author, E. E., Author, F. F., Author, G. G., Author, H. H., Author, I. I., Author, J. J., Author, K. K., Author, L. L., Author, M. M., Author, N. N., Author, O. O., Author, P. P., Author, Q. Q., Author, R. R., Author, S. S., . . . Author, Z. Z.. (2018). 

No author:

  • Start with the article title: Practical oral care for people with intellectual disability.

  • or Book title: Evicted: Poverty and profit in the American city.