Citation Guide

Basic Overview of AMA Style (11th edition)

Icon for American Medical Association (AMA)  AMA Citation Handout (PDF): a three-page quick guide to citing in AMA format

Every time you quote or paraphrase someone else’s work, you must tell us:

  • who wrote the work
  • what is it called
  • and where can we find a copy.

You give us this information in two places:

  1. In the paragraph where you are quoting or paraphrasing. This is called an In Text Citation because you will put brief information about the work in the text of the paper. Check out our guidelines and examples in the left-hand column.
  2. In the References page at the end of the paper. This is where you put all of the information we need to find a copy of the works you used in your paper. Check out our guidelines and examples in the left-hand column.

We also recommend these in-depth guides:

Commonly Used Sources

Sources of Full-Text Journal Articles: Online Databases and Websites

Some online databases, such as CINAHLMEDLINE, and ProQuest, can be accessed through the Library’s website. The PTNow web portal (PTA students have logins) provides access to additional online databases.

Basic AMA Format for an Online Journal Article

Author AA, Author BB, Author CC. Title of article: lower case letter for subtitle. Abbreviated Title of Journal.  Year;Volume number(Issue number):page numbers. Date published online [if given]. Date accessed [if using URL]. DOI or URL

Article with DOI:

Propper L, Cumby J, Uher R, et al. Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder in offspring of parents with depression and bipolar disorder. Br J Psychiatry. June 2017;210(6):408-412. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.bp.117.198754

Article without DOI:

Smith JM, Sullivan SJ, Baxter GD. Massage therapy: more than a modality.  NZ J Phys Ther. 2010;38(2):44-51. Accessed June 5, 2020. https://ezproxy.nwtc.edu/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspxdirect=true&AuthType=cookie,ip,cpid&custid=s6269745&db=ccm&AN=2010738302&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Basic AMA Format for Books

Book

Author AA, Author BB. Title of Book: Subtitle of Book. Edition.  Name of publisher; Year of publication.

Cornwall MW, Harris JH, Nyre E. Imaging Handbook for Physical Therapists. Wolters Kluwer Health; 2015.

E-Book

Author AA, Author BB, Author CC. Title of Book: Subtitle of Book. Edition. Name of publisher; Year of publication. Date accessed. URL

Scott-Conner, CEH. Scott-Conner & Dawson Essential Operative Techniques and Anatomy. 4th ed. Wolters/Kluwer; 2014.  Accessed February 1, 2020.  https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/nwtc-ebooks/detail.action?docID=3417881

Book Chapter

Author AA, Author BB. Title of book chapter: lower case subtitle. In: Editor AA, Editor BB, eds. Title of Book: Subtitle of Book. Edition.  Name of publisher; Year of publication:page numbers.

Burnfield JM, Cesar GM, Norkin CC. Examination of gait. In O'Sullivan SB, Schmitz TJ, Fulk GD, eds. Physical Rehabilitation. 7th ed. F.A. Davis; 2019:228-293.

What if there are more than six authors or no author?