Parenthetical citations: The author name and publication date appear in parentheses at the end of a sentence. If you are quoting directly, provide a page number, if available.
**Important**: The period goes AFTER the closed parenthesis.
APA citation format is the best (Chapman, 2023).
“This is a direct citation” (Chapman, 2019, p. 126).
Narrative citations: The author name is incorporated into the text as part of the sentence and the year follows directly in parentheses. If you are quoting directly, put the page number in parentheses at the end of the sentence.
Jackson (1999) explains that when paraphrasing the idea in your own words, do not use quotation marks and do not include a page number.
According to Chapman (2019), "This is a direct citation" (p. 216).
Watch this video for a demonstration of the two ways to create a hanging indent:
Journal Article References Tips
Title of the article: Only capitalize the first word of the title and first word of any subtitle, as well as any proper nouns.
Abolishing abortion: The history of the pro-life movement in America
CRISPR-baby scientist fails to satisfy critics
Title of the Journal: Capitalize all major words in the title.
Journal of the American Medical Association
The American Journal of Nursing
Italicize the Journal Title, but NOT the title of the article.
Efficacy and safety of drugs used for 'assisted dying'. British Medical Journal.
Italicize the volume number, but NOT the issue number.
The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 210(12):
Volume and Issue Numbers
In addition to the title of the journal, you also need to include the volume and issue number the specific article appears in.
Insert a comma and space after the journal title and type the volume number. Italicize the volume number.
Place the issue number in parentheses after the volume number with no space in between.
If page numbers are provided, put a comma and space after the issue number and then the page range.
Depending on the database or website you are using to find articles, the volume and issue information can show up in a variety of formats. Below are three examples of how journal information can appear; the volume and issue numbers are indicated in red. Below each example is how the journal title, volume & issue, and page number information should be formatted on the References page.
Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health Vol 21, Iss. 5, (Oct 2019): 1102-1114
Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 21(5), 1102-1114.
Journal of Advanced Nursing. Oct2021; 77(10): 4104-4119.
Journal of Advanced Nursing, 77(10), 4104-4119.
BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making, 20, Issue number 310 (2020).
BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making, 20(310).
APA recommends providing a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), when it is available. DOIs provide stable, long-lasting links for online articles and other resources. Recommended format is https://doi.org/xxxxx
Online/Web Resources General Tips
The following apply to most web-based/online/digital resources, including webpages, journal articles available online, online government reports, etc.
DOI : APA recommends providing a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), when it is available, instead of a regular url. DOIs provide stable, long-lasting links for online articles and other resources. Recommended format is https://doi.org/xxxxx
Retrieval Dates: Most references do not include retrieval dates. Include a retrieval date only if the work is unarchived and designed to change over time. Basic format: Retrieved February 24, 2023, from https://xxxxx