In the body of the paper, specifically the paragraph where you are quoting or paraphrasing. This is often called an In Text or Parenthetical Citation because you will put brief information about the work in parentheses. Check out our guidelines and examples in the left-hand column, as well as these resources from the official APA Style & Grammar Guidelines:
In the References page at the end of the paper. This is where you put all of the information we need to find a copy of the works you used in your paper. Check out our guidelines and examples in the left-hand column, as well as these resources from the official APA Style & Grammar Guidelines:
The official APA Style & Grammar Guidelines includes a Student Paper Setup Guide: "Annotated diagrams illustrate how to set up the major sections of a student paper: the title page or cover page, the text, tables and figures, and the reference list."
According to the official APA Style Abstract and Keywords Guide, "The abstract needs to provide a brief but comprehensive summary of the contents of your paper. It provides an overview of the paper and helps readers decide whether to read the full text" (APA, 2020).
The abstract is the second page of your paper (after the Title page).
At the top of the page, center and bold Abstract.
The first line of the abstract is NOT indented.
APA recommends the abstract be no more than 250 words.
APA Side by Side: Examples that "provide reference information and corresponding in-text citation information for common source types and situations you are likely to encounter while working with your sources".
If you are using a quote that is less than 40 words, enclose the quote in quotation marks and add the author’s name (unless it is already in the sentence), year of publication and page numbers (if there are any) in parentheses. Place this reference where a pause would occur or at the end of the sentence. Punctuation marks should be placed after the parenthetical citation. You also will need to add each work from which you cite to your Works Cited page. Here are two examples:
The article goes on to say that “People don't do derby just for exercise but usually because it becomes a part of who they are” (Fagundes, 2012, p.1098).
Fagundes (2012) believes that roller derby gives participants "a chance to feel like a superstar" (p. 1098).
If you are using a quote that is more than 40 words, do not use quotation marks. Instead, put the quote on a new line and indent the whole block approximately 1/2 inch from the left margin. Keep the quote double-spaced. Remember to add a parenthetical citation and put the work on your Works Cited page. The parenthetical citation comes after the final punctuation mark. For example:
He asserts the following:
More importantly, though, the notion of competing under derby names was a perfect fit with the recent reimagination of the sport as a punk-rock spectacle that allowed, and encouraged, participants to develop outrageous public personas. The story of derby-name emergence probably has more to do with coincidence and path dependence than with conscious design. Derby pioneer Ivanna S. Pankin’s classic derby name pre-dated her founding of Arizona Roller Derby in 2003. Rather, it was a handle and email address she used as a musician in Phoenix’s punk rock scene. When she publicized her nascent league using the alias Ivanna S. Pankin, and the entire Austin scene was already using skate names, the leagues that popped up in their wake followed suit,33 and the practice of using colorful nicknames has been used by virtually all derby leagues and skaters since. (Fagundes, 2012, pp.1093-1094)
For a group author with a name that has a commonly-used abbreviation AND that will be cited more than once in the paper,
The first time the group name appears in a parenthetical citation, include the abbreviation in brackets, followed by a comma and the year. Ex. (World Health Organization [WHO], 2022). Subsequent citations should just include the abbreviation, followed by a comma and the year. Ex. (WHO, 2022).
If the group name first appears in a narrative citation, include the abbreviation before the year in parentheses, separated with a comma.
For group authors with abbreviations, use the full name and the abbreviation in the first citation. Then, use only the abbreviation in
Authors' Names in References
Two to 20 authors:
List by their last names and initials, separated by a comma. Put an & between the final two names.
List by last names and initials; commas separate author names.
Include the first 19 authors’ names, insert an ellipsis ... (but no ampersand), and then add the final author’s name:.
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C., Author, D. D., Author, E. E., Author, F. F., Author, G. G., Author, H. H., Author, I. I., Author, J. J., Author, K. K., Author, L. L., Author, M. M., Author, N. N., Author, O. O., Author, P. P., Author, Q. Q., Author, R. R., Author, S. S., . . . Author, Z. Z.. (2018).
Start with the article title: Practical oral care for people with intellectual disability.
or Book title: Evicted: Poverty and profit in the American city.
Provide a paragraph number; you will probably have to count them manually.
According to the IceBridge Project leader, " in addition to the airborne and satellite measurements, scientists will be out on the ice taking height and density measurements as well" (Gray, 2019, para. 6). Source
Provide a heading or section name.
Medical consensus is that the flu is spread "mainly by tiny droplets made when people with flu cough, sneeze or talk" (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2019, How Flu Spreads section). Source
Provide an abbreviated heading or section name in quotation marks if the name is too long or unwieldy to cite in full.
Research has shown that an average of 8% of the U.S. population experiences flu symptoms each flu season," with a range of between 3% and 11%, depending on the season"(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2019, "How Many People" section). Source
Citing Specific Source Parts
One of thebasic principles for citing is "to cite a specific part of a source" by including "an author–date citation for the work plus information about the specific part."
There are many possible "specific parts" to cite, including pages, paragraphs, sections, chapters, video time stamps, and slide numbers in PowerPoint presentations.
If there is no DOI and the journal article is from a library research database, end the reference after the page number. The reference in this case will look the the same as for a print journal article.
If the journal article does not have a DOI and is not from a library database, but does have a URL that will resolve, include the URL of the article at the end of the reference.
Basic Scholarly Journal Article Format
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article: Subtitle words. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), pages. https://doi.org/xx.xxx/yyyyy
Example of Scholarly Article with DOI
Nguyen, T. T., Gildengorin, G., & Truong, A. (2007). Factors influencing physicians' screening behavior for liver cancer among high-risk patients. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 22(4), 523-526. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-007-0128-1
Example of Scholarly Article from Library Database with No DOI
Ryan,E., & Redding, R. (2004). A review of mood disorders among juvenile offenders. Psychiatric Services, 55(12), 1397-1407.
Example of Scholarly Article from Website with No DOI
Humphreys, B. L. (2002). Adjusting to progress: Interactions between the National Library of Medicine and health sciences librarians, 1961-200. Journal of the Medical Library Association, 90(1), 4-20. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC64753/
If there is no DOI and the magazine article is from a library research database, end the reference after the page number. The reference in this case will look the the same as for a print journal article.
If the magazine article does not have a DOI and is not from a library database, but does have a URL that will resolve, include the URL of the article at the end of the reference.
Basic Magazine Article Format
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year, Month Day). Title of article: Subtitle words. Title of Magazine, volume number(issue number), pages. https://doi.org/xx.xxx/yyyyy
Example of Magazine Article with DOI
Schaefer, N. K., & Shapiro, B. (2019, September 6). New middle chapter in the story of human evolution. Science, 365(6457), 981-982. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aay3550
Example of Magazine Article from Library Database with no DOI
Lane, A., & Brody, R. (2019). No laughing matter. New Yorker, 95(41), 65-67.
Example of Magazine Article from Website with URL
Hall, M. (2017, March). The faces of Obamacare. Texas Monthly, 45(3), 116-197. https://www.texasmonthly.com/news-politics/the-faces-of-obamacare/
Grijalva, R., & Maloney, C. (2022, June 29). We need more inclusive data to drive progress for LGBTQI+ communities. Washington Blade. https://www.washingtonblade.com/2022/06/29/we-need-more-inclusive-data-to-drive-progress-for-lgbtqi-communities/
Webpage: Individual Author
Basic Format for Webpage or Document on an Organization or Government Website: Individual Author
Author, A. A. (Date published or updated). Title of report or document: Subtitle of report. Organization Name. http://someurl
Example of Webpage on an Organization Website
Schaeffer, K. (2022, April 5). In CDC survey, 37% of U.S. high school students report regular mental health struggles during COVID-19. Pew Research Center. https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2022/04/25/in-cdc-survey-37-of-u-s-high-school-students-report-regular-mental-health-struggles-during-covid-19/
Example of Webpage on a Government Agency** Website
**Make sure to include the names of the parent department(s) and specific agency/center/office (hierarchy).
Hoyert, D. L. (2021, March 23). Maternal mortality rates in the United States, 2019. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hestat/maternal-mortality-2021/maternal-mortality-2021.htm
Spell out the full name of a group author in the reference list entry, followed by a period.
While an abbreviation for the group author can be used in the text (e.g., NIMH for National Institute of Mental Health), do NOT include an abbreviation for a group author in a reference list entry.
When numerous layers of government agencies are listed as the author of a work, use the most specific agency as the author in the reference. The names of parent agencies appear after the title as the publisher.
Examples of Documents or Webpages on a Government Website
Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention. (2021, March 29). Educational materials for health professionals. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Centers for Disease Control, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. https://www.cdc.gov/dhdsp/materials_for_professionals.htm
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (2022, March 24). Heart treatments. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, National Institutes of Health. https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-topics/cardiac-rehabilitation
National Institute of Mental Health. (2020, January). Coping with traumatic events. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, National Institutes of Health. https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/coping-with-traumatic-events
A dissertation or thesis is considered published when it is available from a database such as ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, an institutional repository, or an archive. (Published Dissertation or Thesis References)
Author, A. A. (Date published). Title of dissertation: Subtitle of dissertation [Doctoral dissertation, Name of University]. Name of Repository or Database. url
Author, A. A. (Date published). Title of thesis: Subtitle of thesis [Master's thesis, Name of University]. Name of Repository or Database. url
Robinson, G. D. (2019). Promoting persistence among LGBTQ community college students [Doctoral dissertation, Illinois State University]. ISU ReD Repository. https://ir.library.illinoisstate.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2041&context=etd
Lindmark, S. A. (2019). "Watching their souls speak": Interpreting the new music videos of Childish Gambino, Kendrick Lamar, and Beyoncé Knowles-Carter [Master's thesis, UC Irvine]. University of California eScholarship. https://escholarship.org/content/qt5gw3v7bf/qt5gw3v7bf.pdf
Instructor last name, Initial. (year). Title of PowerPoint presentation [PowerPoint slides]. NWTC Blackboard Learn. https://blackboard.nwtc.edu/webapps/login/
PowerPoint Slides Example
Chapman, J. M. (2019). Overview of citations: What's new with APA [PowerPoint slides]. NWTC Blackboard Learn. https://blackboard.nwtc.edu/webapps/login/
If you want to cite an interview, email, chat, text message or other personal communication, you only need to do so as a parenthetical citation in the body of your paper; you do NOT need to include it in your References.
Use this format for the parenthetical citation:
(P. Malone, personal communication, December 3, 2020).
"To describe Traditional Knowledge or Oral Traditions that are not recorded (and therefore are not recoverable by readers), provide as much detail in the in-text citation as is necessary to describe the content and to contextualize the origin of the information. For example, if you spoke with an Indigenous person directly to learn information (but they were not a research participant), use a variation of the personal communication citation.
Provide the person’s full name and the nation or specific Indigenous group to which they belong, as well as their location or other details about them as relevant, followed by the words “personal communication,” and the date of the communication.
Provide an exact date of correspondence if available; if correspondence took place over a period of time, provide a more general date or a range of dates. The date refers to when you consulted with the person, not to when the information originated.
Ensure that the person agrees to have their name included in your paper and confirms the accuracy and appropriateness of the information you present.
Because there is no recoverable source, a reference list entry is not used."